Amblyopia arises from abnormal visual experiences in early childhood. Improved function of the amblyopic eye after visual loss in the non-amblyopic eye could be a model for residual neural plasticity. We aimed to establish the likelihood of, and predictive factors for, this improvement in function. We identified 254 individuals aged 11 years or older with unilateral amblyopia who were visually impaired after loss of vision in their non-amblyopic eye but had no other disorder affecting their amblyopic eye. 25 (10%) of 254 people had improved visual acuity in their amblyopic eye. These findings suggest there is some plasticity in the visual system of a few visually mature individuals with amblyopia, which warrants further study. Children should remain the focus of detection and treatment.