Auditory brainstem responses in adult budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

J Acoust Soc Am. 2002 Sep;112(3 Pt 1):999-1008. doi: 10.1121/1.1494807.


The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was recorded in adult budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in response to clicks and tones. The typical budgerigar ABR waveform showed two prominent peaks occurring within 4 ms of the stimulus onset. As sound-pressure levels increased, ABR peak latency decreased, and peak amplitude increased for all waves while interwave interval remained relatively constant. While ABR thresholds were about 30 dB higher than behavioral thresholds, the shape of the budgerigar audiogram derived from the ABR closely paralleled that of the behavioral audiogram. Based on the ABR, budgerigars hear best between 1000 and 5700 Hz with best sensitivity at 2860 Hz-the frequency corresponding to the peak frequency in budgerigar vocalizations. The latency of ABR peaks increased and amplitude decreased with increasing repetition rate. This rate-dependent latency increase is greater for wave 2 as indicated by the latency increase in the interwave interval. Generally, changes in the ABR to stimulation intensity, frequency, and repetition rate are comparable to what has been found in other vertebrates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acoustic Stimulation
  • Animals
  • Auditory Threshold / physiology
  • Brain Stem / physiology*
  • Cochlear Microphonic Potentials / physiology
  • Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem / physiology*
  • Habituation, Psychophysiologic / physiology
  • Loudness Perception / physiology
  • Parrots / physiology*
  • Pitch Discrimination / physiology
  • Reaction Time / physiology
  • Reference Values
  • Sound Spectrography