A translocation of a part of the long arm of a chromosome No. 1 onto the long arm of a chromosome No. 6 was observed in a 2 1/2-year-old boy with mental retardation, harelip, cleft palate and congenital glaucoma. Different banding methods revealed that the translocation t(1;6)(q23;q27) apparently was balanced. The conncection between the patients' symptoms and the chromosomal rearrangement might be fortuitous or produced by the chromosome aberration.