Circumcision and infibulation of females: a general consideration of the problem and a clinical study of the complications in Sudanese women

Sudan Med J. 1967;5(4):178-212.


PIP: The history of female circumcision and infibulation is discussed. Its geographical distribution, reasons for performing the procedure, types of operations, age at which the operation is performed in different areas, and indications for the procedure are discussed. The real reason for the practice was to preserve virginity by reducing the sensitive parts of the female genitalia. It has been noted that female circumcision is no protection against sexual immorality. Results of a clinical study conducted into the immediate and long-term complications of female circumcision and infibulation in Sudan are cited. Retention of urine was a more common but less serious immediate complication than either shock or hemorrhage. Case studies of complications are cited. Attitudes toward the practice are becoming unfavorable. Methods of eradicating the practice are recommended.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Africa
  • Africa, Northern
  • Age Factors
  • Attitude
  • Biology
  • Developing Countries
  • Disease
  • Genitalia
  • Genitalia, Female*
  • Hemorrhage*
  • Infections*
  • Infertility*
  • Menstruation Disturbances*
  • Middle East
  • Midwifery
  • Physiology
  • Reproduction
  • Research*
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Sudan
  • Urogenital System*