The effect of divalent cations on bovine sperm adenylate cyclase activity was studied. Mn2+, Co2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were found to satisfy the divalent cation requirement for catalysis of the bovine sperm adenylate cyclase. These divalent cations in excess of the amount necessary for the formation of the metal-ATP substrate complex were found to stimulate the enzyme activity to various degrees. The magnitude of stimulation at saturating concentrations of the divalent cations was strikingly greater with M2+ than with either Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ or Co2+. The apparent Km was lowest for Zm2+ (0.1 - 0.2 mM) than for any of the other divalent cations tested (1.2 - 2.3 mM). The enzyme stimulation by Mn2+ was decreased by the simultaneous addition of Co2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and particularly Zn2+ and Cu2+. The antagonism between Mn2+ and Cu2+ or Zn2+ appeared to have both competitive and non-competitive features. The inhibitory effect of Cu2+ on Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was prevented by 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, but not by dithiothreitol, L-ergothioneine, EDTA, EGTA or D-penicillamine. Ca2+ at concentrations of 1-5 mM was found to act synergistically with Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ in stimulating sperm adenylate cyclase activity. The Ca2+ augmentation of the stimulatory effect of Zn2+, Co2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ appeared to be specific.