In the second part of our review we describe the association between tobacco use and risk of specific cancer types. There is evidence for an established association of tobacco use with cancer of the lung and larynx, head and neck, bladder, oesophagus, pancreas, stomach and kidney. In contrast, endometrial cancer is less common in women who smoke cigarettes. There are some data suggesting that tobacco use increases the risk for myeloid leukaemia, squamous cell sinonasal cancer, liver cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer after an extended latency, childhood cancers and cancer of the gall bladder, adrenal gland and small intestine. Other forms of cancer, including breast, ovarian and prostate cancer, are unlikely to be linked to tobacco use.