Adenosine is an endogenous neuroprotectant via anti-excitotoxic effects at A(1) receptors, and blood flow promoting and anti-inflammatory effects at A(2a) receptors. Previous studies showed improved motor function after fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats treated with the broad-spectrum adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA). We studied the effects of 2-CA, a specific A(1) agonist (2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, CCPA), and a specific A(1) antagonist (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, DPCPX) on motor task and Morris water maze (MWM) performance, and histopathology (contusion volume, hippocampal cell counts) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. Each agent (12 nmol), or respective vehicle (saline or DMSO) was injected into dorsal hippocampus beneath the contusion immediately after CCI or craniotomy (sham). 2-CA treatment attenuated wire grip deficits after CCI (P<0.05 versus other treatments). DPCPX treatment exacerbated deficits on beam balance (P<0.05 versus sham). No treatment effect was seen on MWM performance, although there was a deleterious effect of the DMSO vehicle used for DPCPX. Contusion volume tended to be attenuated by 2-CA (P=0.08 versus saline) and increased after either DMSO or DPCPX (P<0.05 versus all groups). CA1 and CA3 counts were decreased in all groups versus sham. However, treatment with the selective A(1) agonist CCPA attenuated the CA3 cell loss (P<0.05 versus other treatment). We suggest that the beneficial effect of the broad spectrum adenosine receptor agonist 2-CA on motor function after CCI is not mediated solely by effects at the A(1) receptor.