We have recently shown free radical generation is associated with cognitive impairment in intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) model of sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type in rats. Trans resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound and is known to have antioxidant activity. In the present study, the effect of trans resveratrol was investigated on ICV STZ induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on day 1 and day 3. The learning and memory behavior was assessed using passive avoidance paradigms, elevated plus maze and the closed field activity test while the parameters of oxidative stress assessed were malondialdehyde [MDA] and glutathione. The rats were treated with trans resveratrol chronically at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg,i.p. for 21 days starting from day 1 of STZ injection. Trans resveratrol treatment significantly prevented ICV STZ induced cognitive impairment. There was a rise in brain glutathione and an insignificant increase in brain MDA in trans resveratrol treated ICV STZ rats as compared to significantly elevated brain MDA levels in the vehicle treated ICV STZ animals. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of trans resveratrol in preventing the cognitive deficits as well as the oxidative stress caused by ICV STZ in rats and it's potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.