PIP: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oxytocin induction and augmentation on neonatal bilirubin levels in newborns of diabetic and hypertensive mothers. All women included in the study were admitted to the obstetrics department at Al Hussein Hospital. They were 18-38 years old, and their gestational ages were 38-41 weeks by date. A total number of 140 newborn infants were divided into 3 groups and studied for bilirubin levels. The first group consisted of 40 infants of diabetic mothers, 20 of whom were given oxytocin for labor induction and 20 of whom received it for labor augmentation. The second group consisted of 40 infants of hypertensive mothers, 20 of whom were given oxytocin for labor induction and 20 of whom received it for labor augmentation. The third group consisted of 60 controls, 20 of whom were given oxytocin for labor induction, 20 of whom received it for labor augmentation, and 20 of whom received no oxytocin. It was found that total and unconjugated bilirubin levels were higher in infants delivered after induction of labor, whether their mothers were diabetic, hypertensive, or neither, than in infants delivered without labor induction. Bilirubin levels were mildly high in infants of diabetic mothers after augmented delivery and then nullified after 24 hours. However, the study suggested that the increased bilirubin levels were related to induced labor rather than the medical problem of the mothers, provided that the newborns were of average weight.