PIP: Between December 1990 and July 1991, 17 male HIV patients between the ages of 21 and 47 years in an Indian hospital were identified and information was obtained on their history, age, source of infection, hospitalization, places and sources of sexual contact, and extramarital sexual contacts. Each patient with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) underwent HIV testing too using ELISA whose results were subsequently confirmed by Western Blot. 15 of the 17 patients also had an associated genital ulcer disease (GUD), which was a significant relationship. 12 had asymptomatic generalized lymphadenopathy and 5 were afflicted with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Of the 17 patients, 9 had chancroid, 2 had an early phase of syphilis, 3 had lymphogranuloma venereum, 1 each had candidal balanitis, condylomata acuminata, and acute gonorrhea. Eight patients contracted the HIV infection in Bombay. 14 patients had contracted the disease from prostitutes. Homosexual contacts were denied by all. 13 patients admitted a single instance of extramarital sexual contact. In a study of 123 HIV seronegative prostitutes monitored regularly, HIV seroconversion was significantly associated with GUD. There is convincing evidence that GUD increases the risk of acquiring HIV infection because the breach of mucosal integrity of the genitalia provides a more efficient route for viral entry. Other risk factors documented for sexual transmission of HIV in addition to STDs are: lack of male circumcision, receptive anorectal sexual intercourse, lack of condom use, and advanced HIV-related immunosuppression in the index case. Since GUD predisposes to HIV infection, it is imperative to treat genital ulcer and to increase sex education regarding HIV.