PIP: Population aging has started late in Romania but has increased rapidly in the last few decades. The share of the population aged 60 and over reached 17% in 1992 and the decline in fertility after 1989 will considerably increase this share in the future. The author provides a detailed analysis of the present economic and social situation of the elderly in Romania. Factors such as the economic crisis, and particularly the deterioration of the standard of living, the very low income (pension) level, the high rate of inflation, and the lack of appropriate medical care have pushed most of the aged population into poverty. According to recent surveys, 1.5 million people out of the 3.8 million aged 60 and over live below the poverty line.