Various socio-economic characteristics of Mongolian population -- important findings from Mongolian Demographic Survey

Mong J Demogr. 1996 Oct;1(1):27-42.


PIP: This paper presents demographic and socioeconomic findings from the 1994 Demographic Survey in Mongolia. Mongolia experienced a population tripling during 1950-90. Almost 33% of total population lived in the three major cities. Rural population was spread out across the countryside and along the river valleys. Mongolia shifted to a market economy in 1989. Mongolia has had a pro-natalist population policy, but fertility began to decline during the 1970s. Mortality declined over time, but maternal mortality remained high at 10.1/10,000 live births in 1994. Most households were headed by men; 8% were headed by females. Female-headed households were more common in the capital city. Average household size was 5.3 members. It is suggested that household size was slightly smaller in rural areas due to the availability of tent housing and land. The median age was 19.2 years. The sex ratio was 91 males to 100 females. The proportion of the population aged under 15 years appears to be declining. 43% of women and only 23% of men aged 20-24 years were currently married. Over 62% of women and only 31% of men aged over 65 years were widowed. 12% of males and 10% of females, and 17% of males and 13% of females in remote rural areas, never attended school. 20% of males and 18% of females attended primary school. 41% of males and 44% of females attended secondary school. Women were better educated and had higher enrollment than men. Almost 70% of children aged 6-15 years were currently enrolled in school. Those living in the capital city were more likely to watch television than read a newspaper. Those living in rural areas were more likely to listen to the radio. People in Hentii and Hovd Aimag were least exposed to mass media. About 50% of households perceived their level of income as adequate. People living in rural areas felt better off. Over 70% of the sample and a large proportion in urban areas were unaware that population was increasing.

MeSH terms

  • Asia
  • Asia, Eastern
  • Communication
  • Demography*
  • Developing Countries
  • Economics*
  • Family Characteristics*
  • Mass Media*
  • Mongolia
  • Population
  • Population Dynamics
  • Socioeconomic Factors*