PIP: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of illness among children throughout the world, with an estimated 4.1 million children under age 5 in developing countries dying from ARI annually. ARI is the leading cause of childhood death in India. Data collected in India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) indicate that 1 in every 15 children sampled under age 3 had experienced ARI during the 2 weeks before the survey. At the same time, about 75% of households in the survey reported using wood or animal dung as their main source of energy for cooking. Analysis of the data found that children under age 3 living in households which use wood or animal dung as their primary cooking fuel have an almost one-third higher risk of ARI than do children living in households which use cleaner fuels, even after controlling for a number of other variables. The effects of cooking smoke on ARI rates are most likely greater than what has been estimated. Considerable childhood morbidity and mortality from ARI could be prevented by reducing indoor air pollution from biomass fuels used for cooking.