PIP: This paper explores on the challenges and obstacles confronting the Mothusimpilo Project, a program designed to develop ways of responding to HIV/AIDS in a gold mining community in South Africa. The project utilized participatory approaches to promote active involvement of local groups and the community in designing and implementing the program. It employs 3 full-time workers who were recruited locally. The 2 major components of the program include improved prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and community-based condom distribution and peer education, whose particular targets involve migrant mine workers, commercial sex workers and the young people. It seeks to maximize community involvement through stakeholder management of the program and through grassroots involvement in program implementation. Despite the number of accesses in mobilizing the different components of the community, enormous obstacles, and challenges still remains. Some of these obstacles include poverty, women's lack of background of a male-dominated culture, and their sense of fatalism, which reduces their motivation to protect their sexual health.