Psychiatric symptoms and psychological behavioral pathologies are common in patients with untreated coeliac disease. There are several case reports of coexistence of coeliac sprue and depression, schizophrenia and anxiety. Views on association between coeliac disease and psychiatric disturbances and results of the most important studies are discussed. Biological background is referred. Malabsorption and deficiency of aminoacids and vitamins implicate reduction of synthesis of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Psychiatric symptoms could also be linked to immunological disregulation in coeliac patients. Psychological pathologies do appear in treated and untreated coeliacs, the need of psychological support is stressed. Coeliac disease should be taken into consideration in patients with psychiatric disorders, particularly if they are not responsive to psychopharmacological therapy, because withdrawal of gluten from the diet usually results in disappearance of symptoms. In recent years, an increased incidence of subclinical/silent coeliac disease has been reported. Psychiatric symptoms and psychological behavioral pathologies could be the only clinical manifestation of coeliac disease, but the epidemiological aspects need further investigation.