PIP: The study aim was to determine the nature and extent of sex differences in delivery of health care at out-patient clinics of pediatric departments of two teaching hospitals in Ludhiana, India, in 1988. Of the 20,407 children attending the out-patient clinic, 65.20% were male and 34.80% were female. 19,095 children attended the well-baby clinic, and the gender balance was similar. 3773 children were admitted to the hospital, of whom 83.5% were males and 16.5% were females. There was a highly significant difference in attendance at all three sites. 21.84% of the 3150 male hospital admissions died, and 25.84% of the 623 female hospital admissions died; the differences were statistically significant (p 0.05). The difference between genders in survival period from admission to death was significant; the survival period was 4.58 days for males and 3.20 days for females. Studies during the 1960s indicated the same male preference in allocation of medical care. The girls brought in for in-patient care died more quickly, indicating the later course of the illness. There must be meaningful implementation of policies to elevate the status of Indian women.