Carcinomas of the uterine cervix and corpus are significant causes of morbidity and mortality among women in the U.S. and are expected to contribute 10,700 deaths in 2002. Despite the widespread use of cytologic screening and improvements in early diagnosis, mortality rates have changed little over the past 25 years, and the management of cervical and uterine cancers remains a significant unmet medical need. Currently available modalities, including radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy, provide suboptimal control of disease, and there are no effective treatments for recurrent disease. The antitumor activity and tolerability of a number of novel agents, including topoisomerase I inhibitors, vinca alkaloids, taxanes, and gemcitabine, have been of considerable interest in treatment of these cancers. This review discusses current trends in the treatment of cervical and endometrial carcinomas, focusing on the potential role of topotecan in the treatment of non-ovarian gynecologic malignancies.