We surveyed 16 subjects with the clinical diagnosis of Noonan Syndrome (NS1) from 12 families and their relevant family members for mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 using direct DNA sequencing. We found three different mutations among five families. Two unrelated subjects shared the same de novo missense substitution in exon 13 (S502T); an additional two unrelated families had a mutation in exon 3 (Y63C); and one subject had the amino acid substitution Y62D, also in exon 3. None of the three mutations were present in ethnically matched controls. In the mature protein model, the exon 3 mutants and the exon 13 mutant amino acids cluster at the interface between the N' SH2 domain and the phosphatase catalytic domain. Six of eight subjects with PTPN11/SHP2 mutations had pulmonary valve stenosis while no mutations were identified in those subjects (N = 4) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An additional four subjects with possible Noonan syndrome were evaluated, but no mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 were identified. These results confirm that mutations in PTPN11/SHP2 underlie a common form of Noonan syndrome, and that the disease exhibits both allelic and locus heterogeneity. The observation of recurrent mutations supports the hypothesis that a special class of gain-of-function mutations in SHP2 give rise to Noonan syndrome.
Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.