PIP: A survey of 1734 married women in Brazil was conducted to determine the incidence of abortion. The results show that 159, or 9.2% stated that they had had at least 1 induced abortion, either within marriage or when they were single. Mean age of women with a history of induced abortion was 35.05 years, compared with 34.38 years for women who had had live births but not abortion, and 32.58 for women who had had neither live-birth nor abortion. When age at marriage, rather than age at interview was considered, the incidence of abortion was apparently greater among those marrying at earlier ages, although consideration should also be given to the fact that the chances of live births are also inversely related to age at marriage. Generally, married women with a history of abortion desired no more children compared with other married women; they were more likely to have had experimented with various contraceptive measures in the past; more likely to be currently practicing contraception; and were more ready to accept the contraceptive pill if it had been available. The lower the social status (either of the wife's father/husband) and the 'darker' the informant's skin color, the greater the tendency to use coitus interruptus; the safe period; and other methods. Also, the lower the social status and the darker the skin, the less likely was the informant ever to have used contraceptive devices. It was concluded that in consideration of the variables considered, the differences between wives with and without a history of abortion were generally not great. Any significant differences noted were attributed to variations in economic security. Widespread knowledge and practice of contraception, as well as economic development and higher average income, will reduce the induced abortion rate in Brazil.