PIP: 1993 UN estimates indicate that fertility in India has steadily declined since the late 1950s. According to Rele, the total fertility rate (TFR) in India fell from 6.0 during 1956-66, to 5.8 in 1966-71, 5.4 in 1971-76, and 4.6 in 1976-81. The Registrar General's 1993 estimate of TFR for 1991 was 3.6. By the early 1990s, India had experienced 58% of the fertility decline needed to reach replacement level. The author discusses the ongoing process of fertility transition in India and describes the classical form of demographic transition theory. India's fertility transition is described with an eye to how it resembles the transition experienced in Europe. Sections discuss structural change hypothesis, diffusion, and culture as they relate to demographic transition, with focus upon whether diffusion hypotheses and cultural explanations carry more weight than structural explanations.