Sex comes in from the cold: the integration of sex and pattern

Trends Genet. 2002 Oct;18(10):510-6. doi: 10.1016/s0168-9525(02)02769-5.


There has recently been a revolution in our understanding of how the Drosophila sex-determination hierarchy generates somatic sexual dimorphism. Most significantly, the sex hierarchy has been shown to modulate the activities of well-known signaling molecules (FGF, Wnt and TGF beta proteins) and transcription factors (BAB and DAC) to direct various sex-specific aspects of growth and differentiation. As some of the genes encoding these proteins are also the targets of Hox gene action, these and other findings are revealing the levels at which the sex determination and Hox patterning pathways are integrated to control growth, morphogenesis and differentiation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Patterning / genetics
  • Drosophila / genetics*
  • Drosophila / growth & development*
  • Female
  • Genes, Insect
  • Genitalia / growth & development
  • Male
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Sex Determination Processes
  • Sex Differentiation / genetics