Persistent pain after cardiac surgery: an audit of high thoracic epidural and primary opioid analgesia therapies

Anesth Analg. 2002 Oct;95(4):820-3, table of contents. doi: 10.1097/00000539-200210000-00006.


Persistent pain is an underreported morbidity after cardiac surgery. We sent pain surveys to all patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery from 1997 to 1999 from a single surgeon's experience. Two analgesia strategies were used: high thoracic epidural (HTEA) or IV and oral opiates (OPIOID) for 48-72 h after surgery. Persistent pain was defined as pain still present two or more months after surgery, and all questions referred to the time of survey only. From 356 questionnaires, 305 patients responded, and 61 of them refused consent, leaving 244 patients with complete surveys (HTEA, 150 patients [69%]; OPIOID, 94 patients [68%]). The incidence of persistent pain at any site was 29% and for sternotomy was 25%. The intensity of pain reported was mild, with only 7% reporting interference with daily living. Other common locations of persistent pain were the shoulders (17.4%), back (15.9%), and neck (5.8%). Twenty patients (8%) described symptoms suggestive of the internal mammary artery syndrome. A comparative audit of the HTEA and OPIOID groups showed no significant differences in the frequency or intensity of pain, although the time of survey from operation was longer in the OPIOID group. Mild persistent chest pain after sternotomy is common but infrequently interferes with daily life.

Implications: Persistent wound pain after coronary artery bypass surgery is common, but it is usually is mild and infrequently interferes with daily living. An audit of two pain relief strategies (epidural analgesia or opiate analgesia) did not show any difference in the incidence of persistent pain.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Analgesia, Epidural*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain Measurement / drug effects
  • Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy*
  • Pain, Postoperative / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Analgesics, Opioid