HIV-1 prevalence and herpes simplex virus 2, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus infections among male workers at a sugar estate in Malawi

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Sep 1;31(1):90-7. doi: 10.1097/00126334-200209010-00012.


HIV-1 prevalence is approximately 23% among men working at a sugar estate in Malawi. Given the scale of the HIV epidemic in this country, it is important to determine possible cofactors of infection. The authors investigated associations between HIV-1 prevalence and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections (indicated by anti-HSV-2, anti-HCV and HBsAg positivity, respectively) in a nested case-control study of 279 HIV-positive and 280 HIV-negative male workers. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection was 88.1% among HIV-positive persons and 64.3% among HIV-negative control subjects (p <.01). This difference persisted after adjusting for sexual behavior and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 4.12; 95% CI, 2.21-7.68). The prevalence of HCV seropositivity was 12.7% among HIV-positive persons and 10.0% among control subjects (p =.31), whereas that of HBV infection was 16.9% among HIV-positive persons and 14.4% among control subjects (p =.46). HSV-2 infection is significantly associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection in this population. Therefore, preventive measures for HSV-2 and HIV infection should be emphasized.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carbohydrates
  • Case-Control Studies
  • HIV-1*
  • Hepatitis B / epidemiology*
  • Hepatitis C / epidemiology*
  • Herpes Genitalis / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Malawi / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence


  • Carbohydrates