Background: The effectiveness of trauma services provided by three hospitals operating at different levels of care, district general (DGH), tertiary care, and central tertiary, were compared in Malaysia.
Methods: Cases were recruited prospectively for 1 month. Outcome measures included death or, among survivors, disability at discharge.
Results: Leading causes of injuries were road traffic (72%), falls (9%), industrial (6%), and assaults (5%). Fifty-nine percent of cases were direct admissions and 41% were interhospital transfers. Of the 286 direct admissions, 12% arrived by ambulance and the remainder mostly by private car. For direct admissions, logistic regression identified an increased odds of dying associated with admission to DGH (compared with central tertiary) (odds ratio [OR], 9.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-73.7), severe injuries (Injury Severity Score > 15) (OR, 33.1; 95% CI, 7.5-146.7), and older age (> or = 55 years) (OR, 10.8; 95% CI, 2.0-56.8). Disability at discharge was associated with being severely injured (OR, 6.4; 95% CI, 2.4-17.1).
Conclusion: In this study in Malaysia, admission to DGH, older age, and severe injuries are associated with increased odds of fatality.