Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress has been implicated as an important event in the progression of the pathology. In particular, it has been shown that protein modification by reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs to a greater extent in AD than in control brain, suggesting a possible role for oxidation-related decrease in protein function in the process of neurodegeneration. Oxidative damage to proteins, assessed by measuring the protein carbonyl content, is involved in several events such as loss in specific protein function, abnormal protein clearance, depletion of the cellular redox-balance and interference with the cell cycle, and, ultimately, neuronal death. The present investigation represents a further step in understanding the relationship between oxidative modification of protein and neuronal death in AD. Previously, we used our proteomics approach, which successfully substitutes for labor-intensive immunochemical analysis, to detect proteins and identified creatine kinase, glutamine synthase and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1 as specifically oxidized proteins in AD brain. In this report we again applied our proteomics approach to identify new targets of protein oxidation in AD inferior parietal lobe (IPL). The dihydropyrimidinase related protein 2 (DRP-2), which is involved in the axonal growth and guidance, showed significantly increased level in protein carbonyls in AD brain, suggesting a role for impaired mechanism of neural network formation in AD. Additionally, the cytosolic enzyme alpha-enolase was identified as a target of protein oxidation and is involved the glycolytic pathway in the pathological events of AD. Finally, the heat shock cognate 71 (HSC-71) revealed increased, but not significant, oxidation in AD brain. These results are discussed with reference to potential involvement of these oxidatively modified proteins in neurodegeneration in AD brain.