Aims: Cardiovascular mortality has been reported to be 10- to 20-fold higher in chronic dialysis patients than in the age-matched general population. It has been suggested that increased oxidant stress and resulting vascular wall injury due to uremia and the hemodialysis procedure may be one of the mechanisms predisposing to these cardiovascular complications. Further, hemodialysis membrane bioincompatibility can contribute to increased oxidative stress and prevalence of inflammation.
Materials: We studied 18 chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients (age 62.8 +/- 14.7 years, 39% male, 61% African-American, 44% insulin-dependent diabetic, 61% smokers, 61% with documented coronary artery disease) during hemodialysis with 2 membranes with different flux and complement activating properties.
Methods: We have measured free and phospholipid-bound F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP) levels, a sensitive marker of oxidative stress, in CHD patients and compared them to levels in healthy subjects. We have also examined the acute effects of the hemodialysis procedure using both biocompatible and bioincompatible membranes on F2-IsoP levels.
Results: The results indicated that, compared to controls, both free (96.2 +/- 48.8 pg/ml versus 37.6 +/- 17.2 pg/ml) and bound F2-IsoP (220.4 +/- 154.8 pg/ml versus 146.8 +/- 58.4 pg/ml) levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05 for both). There was a statistically significant decrease in free F2-IsoP concentrations at 15 and 30 minutes of HD, which rebounded to baseline levels at the completion of the procedure. There were no significant differences in F2-IsoP concentrations between the 2 study dialyzers at any time point. Age, smoking status, diabetes mellitus and presence of cardiovascular disease were also not correlated with F2-IsoP levels in this patient population. There was a significant association between predialysis F2-IsoP and C-reactive protein concentrations.
Conclusion: Using a sensitive and specific assay for the measurement of F2-IsoP, we demonstrated that CHD patients are under increased oxidative stress. During a single hemodialysis treatment, the hemodialysis membrane appears to have no discernable effect on oxidative stress status. Measurement of F2-isoprostanes may be a useful biomarker of oxidative stress status as well as in developing new therapeutic strategies to ameliorate inflammatory and oxidative injury in this patient population.