The enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase is an ubiquitous enzyme catalyzing an essential step in NAD (NADP) biosynthetic pathway. In human cells, the nuclear enzyme, which we will now call NMNAT-1, has been the only known enzyme of this type for over 10 years. Here we describe the cloning and expression of a human cDNA encoding a novel 34.4kDa protein, that shares significant homology with the 31.9kDa NMNAT-1. We propose to call this enzyme NMNAT-2. Purified recombinant NMNAT-2 is endowed with NMN and nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase activities, but differs from NMNAT-1 with regard to chromosomal and cellular localization, tissue-specificity of expression, and molecular properties, supporting the idea that the two enzymes might play distinct physiological roles in NAD homeostasis.