5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been the foundation of advanced colorectal cancer treatment for over 40 years. The Apc(Min/+) mouse, which is genetically predisposed to intestinal neoplasia, was used to examine the effects of 5-FU in this system and the impact of dietary folic acid on those effects. 5-FU treatment resulted in a 60-80% reduction in tumor number. Clinically relevant toxicities, including myelosuppression and mucositis, are a part of this response. Tumor numbers rebounded completely following termination of 5-FU therapy, indicating that the drug inhibits tumor growth but does not eradicate them. In mice that were fed with a defined diet containing no folic acid (0 ppm), 5-FU not only induced regression of pre-existing tumors, but also inhibited tumor recovery following drug withdrawal. Our data indicate that a dietary folic acid deficiency, in promoting tumor regression and inhibiting tumor recovery, may enhance the therapeutic effects of 5-FU.