After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the differential diagnosis of xanthelasma palpebrarum. 2. Discuss the various nonsurgical and surgical treatment options and their advantages and disadvantages. 3. Describe the circumstances in which recurrence is most likely after treatment. Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common cutaneous xanthoma. It typically presents in middle-aged and older adults, most often around the eyelids. The diagnosis can often be made on clinical grounds alone. For the plastic surgeon, it is important to apply an algorithmic approach to the treatment of these lesions. Depending on the size and location, several different methods can be used to address this problem, ranging from simple excision, to laser treatment, to chemical peeling. This article addresses the underlying pathophysiology of xanthelasma and the currently accepted modes of treatment.