A randomized trial of two methods for engaging treatment-refusing drug users through concerned significant others

J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002 Oct;70(5):1182-5.


In a randomized clinical trial, 90 concerned significant others (CSOs) of treatment-refusing illicit drug users were assigned to either (a) community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT), which teaches behavior change skills, (b) CRAFT with additional group aftercare sessions after the completion of the individual sessions; or (c) Al-Anon and Nar-Anon facilitation therapy (Al-Nar FT). All protocols received 12 hr of manual-guided individual treatment. Follow-up rates for the CSOs were consistently at least 96%. The CRAFT conditions were significantly more effective than Al-Nar FT in engaging initially unmotivated drug users into treatment. CRAFT alone engaged 58.6%, CRAFT + aftercare engaged 76.7%, and Al-Nar FT engaged 29.0%. No CSO engaged a treatment-refusing loved one once individual sessions had been completed.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aftercare / psychology
  • Behavior Therapy
  • Community Mental Health Services
  • Family / psychology*
  • Family Therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Illicit Drugs*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation
  • Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / psychology*
  • Psychotherapy, Group
  • Social Support*
  • Spouses / psychology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation*
  • Treatment Refusal / psychology*


  • Illicit Drugs