Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), commonly known as "brittle bone disease", is a dominant autosomal disorder characterized by bone fragility and abnormalities of connective tissue. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies have shown that the vast majority of affected individuals have mutations in either the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes that encode the chains of type I procollagen. OI is associated with a wide spectrum of phenotypes varying from mild to severe and lethal conditions. The mild forms are usually caused by mutations which inactivate one allele of COL1A1 gene and result in a reduced amount of normal type I collagen, while the severe and lethal forms result from dominant negative mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 which produce structural defects in the collagen molecule. The most common mutations are substitutions of glycine residues, which are crucial to formation and function of the collagen triple helix, by larger amino acids. Although type I collagen is the major structural protein of both bone and skin, the mutations in type I collagen genes cause a bone disease. Some reports showed that the mutant collagen can be expressed differently in bone and in skin. Since most mutations identified in OI are dominant negative, the gene therapy requires a fundamentally different approach from that used for genetic-recessive disorders. The antisense therapy, by reducing the expression of mutant genes, is able to change a structural mutation into a null mutation, and thus convert severe forms of the disease into mild OI type I.