Microarray analysis of gene expression in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: a preliminary study

Schizophr Res. 2002 Nov 1;58(1):11-20. doi: 10.1016/s0920-9964(01)00377-2.


Microarray studies can be used to examine expression levels for large numbers of genes simultaneously and may be applied to identify genes involved in schizophrenia. A microarray with 1127 brain-relevant genes was used to screen relative gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from three pools of patients with schizophrenia (n = 15) and three matched control pools (n = 15). Pooling of tissue samples was employed as a strategy to detect changes in gene expression that are consistently found across individual cases of schizophrenia. Differences in gene expression were examined by z-ratios in addition to traditional normalized ratios. Three genes that showed consistently decreased expression in schizophrenia by both z-ratio differences and decreased normalized numerical ratios were identified. These were histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein (HINT), ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2N (UBE2N) and glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 (GRIA2). Moreover, HINT gene expression was decreased to a similar degree in a prior study. In addition, a decrease in AMPA receptor expression is consistent with a decrease in glutamate synaptic function. These results are subject to limitations based on variations inherent to human subjects and tissue samples, possible effects of neuroleptic treatment, and the requirement for verification using independent techniques.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Autopsy
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods*
  • Prefrontal Cortex / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Schizophrenia / genetics*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • RNA, Messenger