Bacterial keratitis is a sight-threatening corneal disease that is most commonly associated with the extended wear of soft contact lenses. Over the past decade, we have investigated the pathogenesis of infectious keratitis involving the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our research has focused on understanding the respective roles of bacteria and host in the establishment of this infection. Here, we provide a current perspective on P. aeruginosa keratitis, reviewing some of the research developments that have helped shape our views on the mechanisms by which pathogen and host response cause corneal disease. P. aeruginosa may provide a model for the pathogenesis of bacterial keratitis and help further elucidate the complex array of host factors that normally protect the cornea from infectious agents.