Thirty-nine cultivars of cassava and eight related wild species of Manihot were analyzed in this work for number, morphology and size of chromosomes, prophase condensation pattern and the structure of the interphase nucleus. In four accessions, the chromosome size was measured and in some others, the number of secondary constrictions, meiotic behavior, C-band pattern, CMA/DAPI bands, nucleoli number and the location of 5S and 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA sites were also observed. All investigated accessions showed a similar karyotype with 2n = 36, small metacentric to submetacentric chromosomes. Two pairs of terminal secondary constrictions were observed in the chromosome complement of each accession except Manihot sp. 1, which presented two proximal secondary constrictions. The prophase chromosome condensation pattern was proximal and the interphase nuclei structure was areticulate to semi-reticulate. The meiosis, investigated in seven cultivars and four wild species, was regular, displaying 18 bivalents. C-banding revealed heterochromatin in 9 or 10 chromosomes. The analysis with fluorochromes frequently showed four chromosome pairs with a single CMA+ terminal or subterminal band and a few other chromosomes with DAPI+ unstable bands. Six 45S rDNA sites were revealed by FISH, which seemed to colocalize with six CMA+ bands. Only one chromosome pair presented a 5S rDNA site. The maximum nucleoli number observed per nucleus was also six. These data suggest that all Manihot species present a very similar chromosome complement.