A family of three cDNAs, designated TaSUT1A, 1B and 1D, encoding sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins was isolated from a hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm library. The cDNA sequences are 96% identical but are distinguishable from one another by virtue of a size polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The predicted amino acid sequences are 98% identical and are highly similar to the sucrose transporters from rice, maize and barley. A gene for TaSUT1 was isolated from genomic libraries of Aegilops tauschii (the donor of the D genome of wheat) and the coding sequence found to be identical to that of TaSUT1D cDNA. There is only one copy of each TaSUT1 gene in hexaploid wheat and it is located on chromosome 4. Genomic Southern analysis and PCR analysis across the 3' polymorphic region of hexaploid, tetraploid and progenitor diploid wheat DNAs established that the TaSUT1A gene was present in the putative A-genome progenitor, T. monococcum, and that the TaSUT1B gene was present in the putative B-genome progenitor, T. searsii. All three TaSUT1 genes are expressed at high levels in filling grain, showing a good correlation with the developmental time course of growth. This reinforces the view that in cereals a major role of SUT1 is in the post-phloem sugar transport pathway associated with seed filling.