Analysis of the Ca2+ domain in the Arabidopsis H+/Ca2+ antiporters CAX1 and CAX3

Plant Mol Biol. 2002 Oct;50(3):475-83. doi: 10.1023/a:1019880006606.


Ca2+ levels in plants are controlled in part by H+/Ca2+ exchangers. Structure/function analysis of the Arabidopsis H+/cation exchanger, CAX1, revealed that a nine amino acid region (87-95) is involved in CAX1-mediated Ca2+ specificity. CAX3 is 77% identical (93% similar) to CAX1, and when expressed in yeast, localizes to the vacuole but does not suppress yeast mutants defective in vacuolar Ca2+ transport. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing CAX3 containing the 9 amino acid Ca2+ domain (Cad) from CAX1 (CAX3-9) displayed altered stress sensitivities similar to CAX1-expressing plants, whereas CAX3-9-expressing plants did not have any altered stress sensitivities. A single leucine-to-isoleucine change at position 87 (CAX3-I) within the Cad of CAX3 allows this protein to weakly transport Ca2+ in yeast (less than 10% of CAX1). Site-directed mutagenesis of the leucine in the CAX3 Cad demonstrated that no amino acid change tested could confer more activity than CAX3-I. Transport studies in yeast demonstrated that the first three amino acids of the CAX1 Cad could confer twice the Ca2+ transport capability compared to CAX3-I. The entire Cad of CAX3 (87-95) inserted into CAX1 abolishes CAX1-mediated Ca2+ transport. However, single, double, or triple amino acid replacements within the native CAX1 Cad did not block CAX1 mediated Ca2+ transport. Together these findings suggest that other domains within CAX1 and CAX3 influence Ca2+ transport. This study has implications for the ability to engineer CAX-mediated transport in plants by manipulating Cad residues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Antiporters / genetics*
  • Antiporters / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Binding Sites / genetics
  • Biological Transport
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Cation Transport Proteins*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Tobacco / genetics
  • Tobacco / metabolism
  • Vacuoles / metabolism


  • Antiporters
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • calcium-hydrogen antiporters
  • Calcium