Medetomidine, ketamine, and sevoflurane for anesthesia of injured loggerhead sea turtles: 13 cases (1996-2000)

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Oct 1;221(7):1019-25. doi: 10.2460/javma.2002.221.1019.

Abstract

Objective: To determine safety and efficacy of an anesthetic protocol incorporating medetomidine, ketamine, and sevoflurane for anesthesia of injured loggerhead sea turtles.

Design: Retrospective study.

Animals: 13 loggerhead sea turtles.

Procedure: Anesthesia was induced with medetomidine (50 microg/kg [22.7 microg/lb], IV) and ketamine (5 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb], IV) and maintained with sevoflurane (0.5 to 2.5%) in oxygen. Sevoflurane was delivered with a pressure-limited intermittent-flow ventilator. Heart rate and rhythm, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2, and cloacal temperature were monitored continuously; venous blood gas analyses were performed intermittently. Administration of sevoflurane was discontinued 30 to 60 minutes prior to the end of the surgical procedure. Atipamezole (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb], IV) was administered at the end of surgery.

Results: Median induction time was 11 minutes (range, 2 to 40 minutes; n = 11). Median delivered sevoflurane concentrations 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after intubation were 2.5 (n = 12), 1.5 (12), 1.25 (12), and 0.5% (8), respectively. Heart rate decreased during surgery to a median value of 15 beats/min (n = 11). End-tidal partial pressure of CO2 ranged from 2 to 16 mm Hg (n = 8); median blood gas values were within reference limits. Median time from atipamezole administration to extubation was 14 minutes (range, 2 to 84 minutes; n = 7).

Conclusions and clinical relevance: Results suggest that a combination of medetomidine and ketamine for induction and sevoflurane for maintenance provides safe, effective, controllable anesthesia in injured loggerhead sea turtles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anesthetics, Combined*
  • Anesthetics, Dissociative*
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation*
  • Animals
  • Blood Gas Analysis / veterinary
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives*
  • Ketamine
  • Male
  • Medetomidine
  • Methyl Ethers
  • Partial Pressure
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Safety
  • Sevoflurane
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Turtles / injuries
  • Turtles / physiology*

Substances

  • Anesthetics, Combined
  • Anesthetics, Dissociative
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Methyl Ethers
  • Sevoflurane
  • Ketamine
  • Medetomidine