New therapeutic strategies are needed to improve survival in glioblastoma (GBM) the most malignant astrocytic tumor. We evaluated: a) the genetic status of 22 GBMs by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH); b) the specific role of mutation and/or homozygous deletion of PTEN in the genesis of GBM; and c) the possible therapeutic role of PTEN against GBM, in vitro. CGH demonstrated that the most frequent region of gain was at chromosome 7p, whereas the most frequent losses occurred at chromosomes 10q and 13q. Losses at chromosome 10 were found in 36% of patients, and PTEN was mutated in 27% of the 22 GBMs, including 4 point mutations and 2 homozygous deletions. The possible therapeutic role of PTEN in GBM was also studied in a system based on retroviral infection of the GBM cell line A172, homozygously deleted at the PTEN locus. A172 growth and proliferation rate were reduced by 50% after PTEN transduction. Moreover, we showed that inhibition of cell growth occurred through the PI3K/Akt/p27 pathway. Our findings suggest that PTEN participates in the genesis of GBM, and might be further studied as a candidate therapeutic agent in other testing systems.