Involvement of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in non-lymphohematopoietic malignant tumors accompanied by leukocytosis was clinicopathologically investigated. Among 1,778 autopsy cases in the last 20 years, 485 lesions of 439 cases with non-lymphohematopoietic malignant tumors accompanied by leukocytosis with a white blood cell count of 10,000/mm3 or greater during the course were immunohistologically examined for G-CSF and GM-CSF. Three (0.7%) and two cases (0.5%) were G-CSF- and GM-CSF-positive, respectively. GM-CSF mRNA was confirmed by using non-fixed cryopreserved tumor tissues in one case positive for GM-CSF. G-CSF-positive cases were large cell carcinoma of the lung, adenocarcinoma of the colon, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach, and GM-CSF-positive cases were spindle cell carcinoma of the lung and malignant thymoma. In the case with stomach carcinoma, the primary lesion showing moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was negative, but the lung metastatic lesion showing less differentiated adenocarcinoma was G-CSF-positive. The survival period was six months or less in four out of five positive cases. The highest white blood cell count in five CSF-positive cases was markedly elevated: 29,400-103,500/mm3 (mean: 59,700/mm3). In four cases, excluding one case which may have been markedly affected by chemotherapy, the bone marrow showed hyperplasia, and the number of the granulocyte series cells significantly increased. There were three cases (0.7%) negative for both G-CSF and GM-CSF, although they showed marked leukocytosis (60,000/mm3 or higher) which were higher than the mean count of CSF-positive cases and was not observed in autopsy cases with non-tumorous diseases. Other stimulating factors may be involved in the development of leukocytosis in such cases.