Background: Epidemiological data about the relationship between dyslipidemia and proteinuria are sparse. We conducted a retrospective and longitudinal study in a large screened cohort to evaluate whether triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels increase the risk of development of proteinuria and loss of renal function.
Methods: Post hoc analysis was performed for 4326 subjects who were free from proteinuria (dipstick 1+ or higher) at baseline (1997) with a follow-up period through 2000. Outcome measures were the development of proteinuria (1+ or higher) and change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Multiple logistic analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze baseline characteristics related to the outcome measures.
Results: During the observational period, 505 (11.7%) of subjects had one or more episodes of proteinuria (>/=1+). Adjusted relative risk of triglycerides for one or more incidences of proteinuria was 1.007 (95% CI 1.000 to 1.105, P = 0.04) in men and 1.032 (95% CI 1.004 to 1.061, P = 0.02) in women. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were not significant predictors of proteinuria. The mean change in GFR between 1997 and 2000 was -6.3 (SD = 9.0) mL/min/1.73 m2 in men, and -7.8 (SD = 10.7) mL/min/1.73 m2 in women. HDL cholesterol (beta = 0.04, t = 3.7, P = 0.0002) in men and triglycerides (per 10 mg/dL, beta = -0.09, t = -2.2, P = 0.02) in women were correlated with the change in GFR.
Conclusions: High triglyceride levels predicted a risk of developing proteinuria in both men and women, but not total cholesterol nor LDL cholesterol. High triglyceride in women and low HDL cholesterol in men predicted the decline of renal function. It remains to be determined whether prospective treatment of dyslipidemia will protect against renal injury.