Interstitial fibrosis has a major role in the progression of renal diseases. Several animal models are available for the study of renal fibrosis. The models of aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome, cyclosporin nephrotoxicity, and passive Heyman nephritis are characterized by molecular and cellular events similar to those that occur in obstructive nephropathy. Additionally, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme exerts salutary effects on the progression of renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) has emerged as an important model for the study of the mechanisms of renal fibrosis and also for the evaluation of the impact of potential therapeutic approaches to ameliorate renal disease. Many quantifiable pathophysiological events occur over the span of 1 wk of UUO, making this an attractive model for study. This paper reviews some of the ongoing studies that utilized a rodent model of UUO. Some of the findings of the animal model have been compared with observations made in patients with obstructive nephropathy. Most of the evidence suggests that the rodent model of UUO is reflective of human renal disease processes.