Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) metabolites in human urine is the method of choice to determine occupational and/or environmental exposure of an individual to PAH, in particular, when multiple routes of exposure have to be taken into account. Requirements for methods of biomonitoring PAH metabolites in urine are presented. Studies using 1-hydroxypyrene or phenanthrene metabolites including its phenols and dihydrodiols are summarized. The role of these PAH metabolites as established biomarkers and also more recent developments of PAH biomonitoring are discussed.
Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.