We present two unrelated patients with various duplications in the caudal region. One patient presented with a duplication of the distal spine from L4, left double ureter, duplication of the vagina and cervix, and duplication of the distal colon. The second patient was diagnosed with a duplication of the colon, bladder, vagina and uterus. The first patient had an unaffected monozygotic twin sister. Dominguez et al. [1993: Am J Dis Child 147:1048-1052] presented six similar cases, and introduced the name "caudal duplication syndrome." The pathogenesis of the caudal duplication anomaly is unclear. The possibility of a polytopic primary developmental field defect or a disruptive sequence are discussed. On the other hand, somatic or germline mutations in certain developmental genes could be involved, as illustrated by the mouse mutations disorganisation and fused. DNA-analysis of the AXIN1 gene, the human homologue of the gene responsible for fused, performed in our first patient, did not show any apparent pathogenic mutation.
Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.