The 8p22 through p23 region has been identified as a potential site for genes associated with prostate cancer. The gene LZTS1 has been mapped to the 8p22 through p23 region and identified as a potential tumor suppressor based on loss of heterozygosity studies using primary esophageal tumors. Sequence analysis of mRNA from various tumors has revealed multiple mutations and aberrant mRNA transcripts. The most recent report associates LZTS1 function with stabilization of p34(cdc2) during the late S-G2/M stage of mitosis, affecting normal cell growth. In this study, a detailed DNA sequence analysis of LZTS1 was performed in a screening panel consisting of sporadic and hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) cases and unaffected controls. Twenty-four SNP, 15 of which were novel, were identified in germline DNA. Four coding SNP were identified. Eleven informative SNP were genotyped in 159 HPC probands, 245 sporadic prostate cancer cases, and 222 unaffected controls. Four of these SNP were statistically significant for association with prostate cancer (P < or = 0.04). These results add evidence supporting a role of LZTS1 in prostate cancer risk.