Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HOT) encompasses an extensive research area in which new indications, some of which are now well-codified, have emerged both in the fields of medical and surgical pathology. Its utilization in carefully targeted clinical situations, in which its true efficacy can be demonstrated, is first of all connected with medicolegal responsibility, in suspected iatrogenic accidents; its application must furthermore be subordinated to a favourable cost/benefit ratio for the health service employing it. In otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery, HOT is a strategic therapeutic weapon in several applications. Its most widely recognized indications are radiation lesions, chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible, head and neck infections, malignant external otitis, sudden hypoacusia, chronic tinnitus, encephalitis, treatment of the gasseous embolus, skin grafts, vascularized flaps, cervicoencephalic traumas. HOT indications as a radiosensitizing and/or chemiosensitizing factor are still being studied. Both a review of the literature and our experience appear, beyond any doubt, to confirm that HOT promotes faster recovery and reduces hospital stays, thus qualifying as a new therapeutic aid that complements the usual well-established methods.