Irrespective of underlying chronic wound pathology, delayed wound healing is normally characterised by impaired new tissue formation at the site of injury. It is thought that this impairment reflects both a reduced capacity to synthesize new tissue and the antagonistic activities of high levels of proteinases within the chronic wound environment. Historically, wound dressings have largely been passive devices that offer the wound interim barrier function and establish a moist healing environment. A new generation of devices, designed to interact with the wound and promote new tissue formation, is currently being developed and tested. This study considers one such device, oxidised regenerated cellulose (ORC) /collagen, in terms of its ability to promote fibroblast migration and proliferation in vitro and to accelerate wound repair in the diabetic mouse, a model of delayed wound healing. ORC/collagen was found to promote both human dermal fibroblasts proliferation and cell migration. In vivo studies considered the closure and histological characteristics of diabetic wounds treated with ORC/collagen compared to those of wounds given standard treatment on both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. ORC/collagen was found to significantly accelerate diabetic wound closure and result in a measurable improvement in the histological appearance of wound tissues. As the diabetic mouse is a recognised model of impaired healing, which may share some characteristics of human chronic wounds, the results of this in vivo study, taken together with those relating the positive effects of ORC/collagen in vitro, may predict the beneficial use of this device in the clinical setting.