Vasculitis is an important diagnostic consideration in the child with prolonged fever, unexplained pains, new neurologic findings, or other persistent and troubling signs of inflammation. As long as the etiology of vasculitis remains unknown, reliance upon imperfect diagnostic criteria is likely to remain the state of the art. Nonetheless, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapy is highly effective in speeding resolution of systemic inflammation and reducing long-term complications. The care, experience, and acumen of the treating physician thus remain the gold standard for diagnosing and treating pediatric vasculitides. In all cases this begins with a high level of suspicion in the primary care physician.