Classifying diabetes according to the new WHO clinical stages

Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(11):983-9. doi: 10.1023/a:1020036805655.

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: To test the usefulness of the new WHO criteria for clinical staging of diabetes in the characterization of 1977 diabetic patients.

Methods: The following clinical stages were used: patients on diet and/or oral antidiabetic agents 2 years after diagnosis were considered as non-insulin requiring (NIR; n = 711) and patients who required insulin therapy after 1 year as insulin requiring for control (IRC; n = 543). Patients who because of deteriorating hyperglycemia within 1 year required insulin therapy were considered as insulin requiring for survival (IRS; n = 743).

Results: The NIR patients had the highest age at onset (52 +/- 12 years; mean +/- SD), BMI (29.3 +/- 5.2 kg/m2) and C-peptide concentrations (median 0.98 nmol/l; interquartile range 0.72-1.31 nmol/l) but the lowest frequency of GAD antibodies (5.5%) compared to the IRC and IRS groups. The IRC group had a high age at onset (49 +/- 13 years), BMI (28.0 +/- 4.8 kg/m2), frequency of GAD antibodies (16.8%), intermediate C-peptide concentrations (0.56 nmol/l, interquartile range 0.28 +/- 0.94), and the highest prevalence of nephropathy (31.5%) and neuropathy (68.1%). The IRS group had the lowest age at onset (23 +/- 15 years), BMI (24.2 +/- 3.4 kg/m2), C-peptide concentrations (0.05 nmol/l, interquartile range below detection limit 0.01) and highest frequency of GAD antibodies (44.5%). Retinopathy was more common in IRS than in IRC patients (62.1 vs. 43.9%;p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The new WHO criteria seem to discriminate three distinct subgroups and thus provide a useful tool for clinical staging. The IRC patients seem to have a more severe disease than the IRS patients, which has not been clearly acknowledged in the etiological classification. However, because of the cross-sectional nature of these data, they need to be confirmed in a prospective study with defined cut-off limits for when insulin should be initiated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / classification*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / classification*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Disease Progression*
  • Female
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sweden
  • World Health Organization

Substances

  • Autoantibodies
  • Biomarkers
  • C-Peptide
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase