Lipid abnormalities are important variables in the development of vascular atherosclerotic lesions in ESRD patients while Lp(a) represents an independent risk factor. In order to evaluate lipid changes in HD and CAPD patients, serum cholesterol (TC), HDLc, LDLc, TG, apolipoproteins (AI,AII,B,E), Lp(a), and albumin levels were estimated in 109 ESRD dialyzed patients, 46 in HD and 63 in CAPD (mean duration 50 +/- 40 and 25 +/- 19 months, respectively), and 45 volunteers with high serum levels of C and TG, without renal insufficiency. Both HD and PD group revealed statistically significantly higher levels than controls for TC, TG, LDL-C, Apo-B,-E, while HDL-C levels were significantly lower. Except for the lower serum albumin levels in both dialyzed groups after six months lower ApoAI levels and higher ApoB levels were observed in HD and PD patients respectively. Lp(a) levels remained unchanged in HD group, while a statistically significant increase appeared in PD patients that was negative correlated with the decreased serum albumin levels. These results indicate that renal replacement modalities result in a different effect in lipoprotein metabolism that may play an important role in atherosclerotic vascular disease of dialyzed ESRD patients.