Sixty adult Klebsiella meningitis patients have been identified at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in a period of 13 years. Most cases were associated with debilitating diseases, and devastating metastatic septic abscesses are common in diabetic patients with K. pneumoniae meningitis. Although the mortality rate has been significantly reduced in recent years, there has been an increase in nosocomial infections and the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Significant prognostic factors include appropriate antibiotic therapy, the presence of septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and high cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and white blood cell counts. Initial empiric therapy with a third generation cephalosporin should be considered for community-acquired meningitis while antibiotics such as carbapenems should be considered as initial empiric therapy for patients with postneurosurgical meningitis. Early diagnosis and the use of appropriate antibiotics are of crucial importance.